The Application of Computed Tomography Scanning and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Rock Typing of Polymineral Clastic Reservoirs

Elizaveta Shvalyuk, Alexei Tchistiakov, Alexandr Kalugin

Результат исследований: Вклад в журналСтатьярецензирование

Аннотация

The main objective of this study was to provide rock typing of the producing formation based on high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data in combination with routine core analyses results. The target formation is composed of a shallowing up sequence of clastic rocks. Siltstones in its base are gradually replaced by sandstones toward its top. Initially, only sandstones were considered as oil-bearing, while siltstones were considered as water-bearing based on saturation calculation by means of Archie's equation (Archie 1942) with the same values of cementation and saturation exponent for the whole formation. However, follow-up well tests detected considerable oil inflow also from the base of the reservoir composed of siltstones. Therefore, better rock typing was needed to improve the initial saturation distribution calculation. An applied approach that was based on integrated analysis of rock microstructural characteristics and derived from the NMR and CT techniques and conventional properties used for reserves calculation appeared to be an effective tool for rock typing polymineral clastic reservoirs. Measuring porous network characteristics and conventional properties in the same core plug enables a confident correlation between all measured parameters. Consequently, rock typing of samples based on flow units' microstructural characteristics derived from NMR and CT scanning has shown a very good consistency with each other. As a result, four rock types were distinguished within a formation, which were previously interpreted as a single rock type. The detailed rock typing of the reservoir allowed more accurate reserves calculation and involvement of additional intervals into the production. Besides porous media characterization, CT scanning proved to be an effective tool for detecting minerals, such as pyrite and carbonates, characterizing depositional environments. Increasing content of pyrite in siltstones, detected by CT scanning and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, indicates deeper and less oxic conditions, while the presence of carbonate shell debris indicates shallower, more oxic depositional settings. The NMR test results show that the NMR signal distribution is affected by both pore size distribution and mineralogical composition. An increase of pyrite content caused shifting of the T2 distribution to the lower values, while carbonate inclusions caused shifting of the T2 distribution to higher values relative to the other samples not affected by these mineral inclusions. Because NMR distribution is affected by multiple factors, applying T2cutoff values alone for rock typing can lead to ambiguous interpretation. Applying CT scanning next to NMR data increases the reliability of rock typing. The proposed laboratory workflow, including a combination of nonhazardous and nondestructive tests, allowed reliable differentiation of the rock samples based on multiple parameters that were interpreted in relationship with each other. Because the designed laboratory test workflow enabled both justified separation of the samples by rock type and determination of parameters used for reserves calculation, it can be recommended for further application in polymineral clastic reservoirs. Because the proposed techniques are nondestructive, the same samples can be applied for multiple tests including special core analysis (or SCAL).

Язык оригиналаАнглийский
Страницы (с-по)232-244
Число страниц13
ЖурналSPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering
Том25
Номер выпуска2
DOI
СостояниеОпубликовано - 1 мая 2022

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