Earlier studies have shown that high doses of TNF-alpha increase apoptosis in human autoimmune T-cell clones. Based on these studies, a treatment approach was proposed to reduce or eliminate autoimmune T cells in patients with type 1 diabetes using drugs that temporarily elevate TNF levels. Here, we report the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis patient with a single high oral dose of Likopid (glucosaminyl-muramyl dipeptide), which aimed at increasing the levels of TNF-alpha in order to induce apoptosis of autoreactive T cells. The flow cytometric analysis of blood samples collected before and after treatment demonstrated massive elimination of CD8 + T cells. However, the treatment did not result in any notable therapeutic effect, and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that stably expanded T-cell clones that were earlier tracked in this patient were unaffected. This report suggests that the controversial approach to eliminate autoimmune T-cell clones through overstimulation is not effective in treating ankylosing spondylitis.