The White Sea is a unique marine environment combining features of temperate and Arctic seas. The composition and abundance of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) were investigated in the land-fast ice of the White Sea, Russia, in March 2013 and 2014. High-throughput tag sequencing (Illumina MiSeq system) of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene was used to reveal the diversity of PPE ice community. The integrated PPE abundance varied from 11 × 106 cells/m2 to 364 × 106 cells/m2; the integrated biomass ranged from 0.02 to 0.26 mg С/m2. The composition of sea-ice PPEs was represented by 16 algae genera belonging to eight classes and three super-groups. Chlorophyta, especially Mamiellophyceae, dominated among ice PPEs. The detailed analysis revealed the latent diversity of Micromonas and Mantоniella. Micromonas clade E2 revealed in the subarctic White Sea ice indicates that the area of distribution of this species is wider than previously thought. We suppose there exists a new Micromonas clade F. Micromonas clade C and Minutocellulus polymorphus were first discovered in the ice and extend the modern concept of sympagic communities’ diversity generally and highlights the importance of further targeting subarctic sea ice for microbial study.