This paper presents data on lithological composition, distribution, reservoir properties, geochemistry of organic matter and genesis of carbonate rocks of the Bazhenov formation within the central part of Western Siberia (the region of the Khantei hemianteclise). The following types of carbonates are distinguished: A) primary biogenic-shell rock interlayers and residues of coccolith; b) dia- and catagenetic-in varying degrees, recrystallized rocks with coccoliths, nodules and aporadiolarites; c) catagenetic-cracks healed with calcite in limestone of the foot of the Bazhenov formation. It was determined that the crystallization of the carbonate material of nodules took place in various conditions: In the bottom part of the sediments and in the later stages of diagenesis. The source of calcite for nodules was calcareous nanoplankton or bivalve shells. The carbonate content of the cuts decreases in the following sequence: Yuzhno-Yagunsky → Povkhovsky → Novortyagunsky → Druzhny areas, which are associated both with facial features and various physicochemical conditions of diagenesis and catagenesis. Transformation of organic matter increases in the northeast direction from South Yagunsky to Povkhovsky area, which is confirmed by molecular parameters of catagenesis. The carbonate rocks of the bottom part of the Bazhenov formation in the South Yagunsky area are similar in structure to the main oil-bearing reservoirs of the Salym and Krasnoleninsky fields.