Mesoporous silver nanoparticles were easily synthesized through the bulk reduction of crystalline silver(I) oxide and used for the preparation of highly porous surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates. An analogous procedure was successfully performed for the production of mesoporous silver films by chemical reduction of oxidized silver films. The spongelike silver blocks with high surface area and the in-situ-prepared mesoporous silver films are efficient as both analyte adsorbents and Raman signal enhancement mediators. The efficiency of silver reduction was characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The developed substrates were applied for SERS detection of rhodamine 6G (enhancement factor of about 1-5 × 105) and an anti-ischemic mildronate drug (meldonium; enhancement factor of ~102) that is known for its ability to increase the endurance performance of athletes.