Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) with orthogonality constraints is quite important due to its close relation with the K-means clustering. While existing algorithms for orthogonal NMF impose strict orthogonality constraints, in this letter we propose a penalty method with the aim of performing approximately orthogonal NMF, together with two efficient algorithms respectively based on the Hierarchical Alternating Least Squares (HALS) and the Accelerated Proximate Gradient (APG) approaches. Experimental evidence was provided to show their high efficiency and flexibility by using synthetic and real-world data.
- Accelerated proximal gradient
- nonnegative matrix factorization