Thermodynamic Conditions for Consolidation of Dissimilar Materials in Bimetal and Functional Graded Structures

Alexander Khaimovich, Yaroslav Erisov, Igor Shishkovsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Functional Graded Structures and Functional Graded parts, made using dissimilar materials, are designed to provide specific properties to the final product. One of the most promising methods for manufacturing 3D Functional Graded objects is 3D laser cladding and/or direct energy deposition. However, the construction of graded and especially layered graded structures in the process of joining materials with different thermophysical properties under certain conditions is accompanied by the formation of cracks along the phase boundaries, which are a consequence of residual stresses and/or chemical segregations. The conditions for phase consolidation are macroscopic balancing of residual stresses in the region of the interface. In a broader sense, in the field of the interface, it is necessary to consider the thermodynamic equilibrium of the phases in connection with mechanical equilibrium. In this regard, the article proposed criteria for the thermodynamic affinity of phases in the area of the Functional Graded Structures interface, including the coefficients of thermal expansion and isobaric and isochoric heat capacities of the phases. Examples of cracking and the use of the obtained criteria are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article number825
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • 316L
  • Adhesive consolidation criteria
  • AlSi10 Mg
  • Computational thermodynamics
  • Functional bimetallic materials
  • Functional graded intermetallic structures
  • Thermodynamical approach


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