The blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) plays a critical role in supporting coagulation and fibrinolysis due to both the covalent crosslinking of fibrin polymers, rendering them resistant to plasmin lysis, and the crosslinking of fibrin to proteins of the fibrinolytic system. The hypochlorite-mediated oxidation of the blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) at the different stages of its enzymatic activation is studied for the first time in this paper. The consolidated results obtained with the aid of MS/MS, electrophoresis, and colorimetry demonstrate that in the process of FXIII’s conversion into FXIIIa, the vulnerability of FXIII to hypochlorite-induced oxidation increased as follows: native FXIII < FXIII + Ca2+ << FXIII + Ca2+/thrombin. The modification sites were detected among all the structural regions of the catalytic FXIII-A subunit, except for the activation peptide, and embraced several sushi domains of the FXIII-B subunit. Oxidized amino acid residues belonging to FXIII-A are surface-exposed residues and can perform an antioxidant role. The regulatory FXIII-B subunits additionally contribute to the antioxidant defense of the catalytic center of the FXIII-A subunits. Taken together, the present data along with the data from previous studies demonstrate that the FXIII proenzyme structure is adapted to oxidation.
- Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII)
- Hypochlorite-induced oxidation
- Oxidative modifications
- Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
- Structural adaptation