The present paper proposes a super-resolution (SR) model based on a convolutional neural network and applies it to the near-surface temperature in urban areas. The SR model incorporates a skip connection, a channel attention mechanism, and separated feature extractors for the inputs of temperature, building height, downward shortwave radiation, and horizontal velocity. We train the SR model with sets of low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution (HR) images from building-resolving large-eddy simulations (LESs) in a city, where the horizontal resolutions of LR and HR are 20 and 5 m, respectively The generalization capability of the SR model is confirmed with LESs in another city. The estimated HR temperature fields are more accurate than those of the bicubic interpolation and image SR model that takes only the temperature as its input. Except for the temperature input, the building height is the most important to reconstruct the HR temperature and enables the SR model to reduce errors in temperature near building boundaries. The SR model considers the appropriate boundary for each building from its height information. The analysis of attention weights indicates that the importance of the building height increases as the downward shortwave radiation becomes larger. The contrast between sun and shade is strengthened with the increase in solar radiation, which may affect the temperature distribution. The short inference time suggests the potential of the proposed SR model to facilitate a real-time HR prediction in metropolitan areas by combining it with an LR building-resolving LES model.
- Artificial neural network
- Attention mechanism
- Building-resolving micrometeorological model
- Large-eddy simulation