Storage-Based Frequency Shaping Control

Yan Jiang, Eliza Cohn, Petr Vorobev, Enrique Mallada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the decrease in system inertia, frequency security becomes an issue for power systems around the world. Energy storage systems (ESS), due to their excellent ramping capabilities, are considered as a natural choice for the improvement of the frequency response following major contingencies. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for energy storage - frequency shaping control - that allows to completely eliminate the frequency Nadir, one of the main issues in frequency security, and at the same time tune the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) to a desired value. With Nadir eliminated, the frequency security assessment can be performed via simple algebraic calculations, as opposed to dynamic simulations for conventional control strategies. Moreover, our proposed control is also very efficient in terms of the requirements on storage peak power, requiring less (up to 40% in one of the cases) power than conventional virtual inertia approach for the same performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5006-5019
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Electric storage
  • Energy storage
  • frequency control
  • Frequency control
  • frequency Nadir
  • Frequency response
  • Generators
  • low-inertia power systems
  • Power system dynamics
  • rate of change of frequency
  • Security
  • Transient analysis


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