Single-cell-resolution transcriptome map of human, chimpanzee, bonobo, and macaque brains

Ekaterina Khrameeva, Ilia Kurochkin, Dingding Han, Patricia Guijarro, Sabina Kanton, Malgorzata Santel, Zhengzong Qian, Shen Rong, Pavel Mazin, Marat Sabirov, Matvei Bulat, Olga Efimova, Anna Tkachev, Song Guo, Chet C. Sherwood, J. Gray Camp, Svante Pääbo, Barbara Treutlein, Philipp Khaitovich

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    40 Citations (Scopus)


    Identification of gene expression traits unique to the human brain sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying human evolution. Here, we searched for uniquely human gene expression traits by analyzing 422 brain samples from humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and macaques representing 33 anatomical regions, as well as 88,047 cell nuclei composing three of these regions. Among 33 regions, cerebral cortex areas, hypothalamus, and cerebellar gray and white matter evolved rapidly in humans. At the cellular level, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitors displayed more differences in the human evolutionary lineage than the neurons. Comparison of the bulk tissue and single-nuclei sequencing revealed that conventional RNA sequencing did not detect up to two-thirds of cell-type-specific evolutionary differences.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)776-789
    Number of pages14
    JournalGenome Research
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - May 2020


    Dive into the research topics of 'Single-cell-resolution transcriptome map of human, chimpanzee, bonobo, and macaque brains'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this