Sentinel lymph node detection by combining nonradioactive techniques with contrast agents: State of the art and prospects

Maxim A. Kurochkin, Sergey V. German, Anatolii Abalymov, Dmitry Vorontsov, Dmitry A. Gorin, Marina V. Novoselova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The status of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) has a substantial prognostic value because these nodes are the first place where cancer cells accumulate along their spreading route. Routine SLN biopsy (“gold standard”) involves peritumoral injections of radiopharmaceuticals, such as technetium-99m, which has obvious disadvantages. This review examines the methods used as “gold standard” analogs to diagnose SLNs. Nonradioactive preoperative and intraoperative methods of SLN detection are analyzed. Promising photonic tools for SLNs detection are reviewed, including NIR-I/NIR-II fluorescence imaging, photoswitching dyes for SLN detection, in vivo photoacoustic detection, imaging and biopsy of SLNs. Also are discussed methods of SLN detection by magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic imaging systems including as combined with photoacoustic imaging, and methods based on the magnetometer-aided detection of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The advantages and disadvantages of nonradioactive SLN-detection methods are shown. The review concludes with prospects for the use of conservative diagnostic methods in combination with photonic tools.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202100149
JournalJournal of Biophotonics
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • biopsy
  • contrast agents
  • fluorescence visualization
  • photoacoustic imaging
  • sentinel lymph nodes

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