The optical scanning (OS) technique and instrumentation has been developed for continuous high-resolution, noncontact profiling of rock heterogeneity and simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and, as a result, volumetric heat capacity of rock samples. The OS technique is based on scanning a sample surface with two (for heterogeneity and thermal conductivity profiling) or three (for simultaneous profiling and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity measurements) infrared temperature sensors in combination with continuously operated, concentrated optical heat source. The OS technique provides for determining the principal values of thermal conductivity and diffusivity tensor components from scanning along two (for 2D anisotropy) or three (for 3D anisotropy) directions for anisotropic rocks. Spatial resolution on rock heterogeneity profiling was determined to be approximately 0.2 mm. Other merits of the new technique include freedom from constraints for sample size (1 to 80 cm sample length) and shape and quality of mechanical treatment of the sample surface, a contactless measurements mode that provides high-quality experimental data, short time of the measurement for each sample, ability to measure on a flat or cylindrical sample surface, and the possibility for measuring full-size cores and core plugs.