Robotic-assisted surgery in medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: does it improve the precision of the surgery and its clinical outcomes? Systematic review

Roberto Negrín, Gonzalo Ferrer, Magaly Iñiguez, Jaime Duboy, Manuel Saavedra, Nicolas Reyes Larraín, Nicolas Jabes, Maximiliano Barahona

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

There is a high prevalence of knee osteoarthritis that affects only the medial tibiofemoral compartment. In this group of patients with severe disease, the medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an excellent choice. However, this technique has a great learning curve due to the lower tolerance of improper positioning and alignment. In this context, the robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) arises as an option to improve the accuracy and secondarily enhance the clinical outcomes related to the UKA. The objective in this study is to determine if there are significant advantages with the use of RAS over conventional surgery (CS). In the systematic review of the literature, classification of the results in three main subjects: (A) precision and alignment; (B) functional results and clinical parameters; (C) survivorship. We found 272 studies, of which 15 meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. There is mostly described that RAS significantly improves the accuracy in position (80–100% of planned versus performed P < 0.05), alignment (2–3 times less error variance P < 0.05) and selection of the proper size of the implants (69.23% of correct size femoral implants versus 16.67% using CS P < 0.0154). Recently, there is mild evidence about benefits in the early rehabilitation and post-operative pain, but in all studies reviewed, there is no advantages of RAS in the long-term functional evaluation. There is no strong literature that supports a longer survival of the prothesis with RAS, being the longest mean follow-up reported of 29.6 months. RAS is a useful tool in increasing the precision of the medial UKA implant placement. However, there is still a lack of evidence that properly correlates this improvement in accuracy with better clinical, functional and survival results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-177
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Robotic Surgery
Volume15
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Arthroplasty
  • Knee
  • Robotic surgery
  • Robotic-assisted surgery
  • Robotics
  • Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
  • Unicondylar knee

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