Reserve constrained dynamic economic dispatch in multi-area power systems: An improved fireworks algorithm

Mohsen Zare, Mohammad Rasoul Narimani, Mostafa Malekpour, Rasoul Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Vladimir Terzija

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


The multi-area economic dispatch (MAED) plays a major role in an interconnected power system to determine the generation dispatch strategy and satisfy the load demands as well as the technical constraints. Tie-line capacity between different areas, upper/lower generation limits, generator ramp rates, transmission losses, valve point effect, disjoint prohibited zones as well as spinning reserve are considered as the MAED problem constraints. Due to hourly load variations, the MAED problem should be solved dynamically to coincide the realistic conditions which build up the multi-area dynamic economic dispatch (MADED) problem. Considering these constraints besides the intertemporal constraints which depends to the optimal conditions of each hour with respect to other time steps may increase the problem complexity. In this regard, an improved version of fireworks algorithm which is equipped with two effective cross-generation mutation strategies is deployed to handle the non-linear, non-smooth, non-convex, multi-dimensional and multi-constraints MADED problem. Furthermore, a new constraint handling scheme is developed to correct the potential solutions in feasible search space. Finally, two small and large systems are used to investigate the capability of the developed algorithm in finding the global or near-global optima.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106579
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Economic dispatch
  • Improved fireworks algorithm
  • Interconnected network
  • Multi-area restrictions
  • Optimization


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