Our aim was to investigate how replication protein A (RPA) in a wide range of concentration can regulate the activity of human telomerase. We used an in vitro system based on human cell extracts with or without RPA. It has been shown that removal of RPA leads to loss of telomerase activity and addition of RPA restores telomerase activity and at the same time promotes telomerase processivity. However, high excess of RPA inhibited telomerase processivity and caused the synthesis of relatively short DNA fragments (about 50-100 nucleotides). We assume that, together with other telomere-binding proteins, RPA may take part in activation of telomere overhang elongation by telomerase at a certain stage of a cell cycle as well as in regulation of telomere length.