Ribosome stalling during translation significantly reduces cell viability, because cells have to spend resources on the synthesis of new ribosomes. Therefore, all bacteria have developed various mechanisms of ribosome rescue. Usually, the release of ribosomes is preceded by hydrolysis of the tRNA-peptide bond, but, in some cases, the ribosome can continue translation thanks to the activity of certain factors. This review describes the mechanisms of ribosome rescue thanks to trans-translation and the activity of the ArfA, ArfB, BrfA, ArfT, HflX, and RqcP/H factors, as well as continuation of translation via the action of EF-P, EF-4, and EttA. Despite the ability of some systems to duplicate each other, most of them have their unique functional role, related to the quality control of bacterial translation in certain abnormalities caused by mutations, stress cultivation conditions, or antibiotics.
- quality control