QTT-finite-element approximation for multiscale problems I: model problems in one dimension

Vladimir Kazeev, Ivan Oseledets, Maxim Rakhuba, Christoph Schwab

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Tensor-compressed numerical solution of elliptic multiscale-diffusion and high frequency scattering problems is considered. For either problem class, solutions exhibit multiple length scales governed by the corresponding scale parameter: the scale of oscillations of the diffusion coefficient or smallest wavelength, respectively. As is well-known, this imposes a scale-resolution requirement on the number of degrees of freedom required to accurately represent the solutions in standard finite-element (FE) discretizations. Low-order FE methods are by now generally perceived unsuitable for high-frequency coefficients in diffusion problems and high wavenumbers in scattering problems. Accordingly, special techniques have been proposed instead (such as numerical homogenization, heterogeneous multiscale method, oversampling, etc.) which require, in some form, a-priori information on the microstructure of the solution. We analyze the approximation properties of tensor-formatted, conforming first-order FE methods for scale resolution in multiscale problems without a-priori information. The FE methods are based on the dynamic extraction of principal components from stiffness matrices, load and solution vectors by the quantized tensor train (QTT) decomposition. For prototypical model problems, we prove that this approach, by means of the QTT reparametrization of the FE space, allows to identify effective degrees of freedom to replace the degrees of freedom of a uniform “virtual” (i.e. never directly accessed) mesh, whose number may be prohibitively large to realize computationally. Precisely, solutions of model elliptic homogenization and high-frequency acoustic scattering problems are proved to admit QTT-structured approximations whose number of effective degrees of freedom required to reach a prescribed approximation error scales polylogarithmically with respect to the reciprocal of the target Sobolev-norm accuracy ε with only a mild dependence on the scale parameter. No a-priori information on the nature of the problems and intrinsic length scales of the solution is required in the numerical realization of the presently proposed QTT-structured approach. Although only univariate model multiscale problems are analyzed in the present paper, QTT structured algorithms are applicable also in several variables. Detailed numerical experiments confirm the theoretical bounds. As a corollary of our analysis, we prove that for the mentioned model problems, the Kolmogorov n-widths of solution sets are exponentially small for analytic data, independently of the problems’ scale parameters. That implies, in particular, the exponential convergence of reduced basis techniques which is scale-robust, i.e., independent of the scale parameter in the problem.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)411-442
    Number of pages32
    JournalAdvances in Computational Mathematics
    Volume43
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017

    Keywords

    • Exponential convergence
    • Helmholtz equation
    • Homogenization
    • Multiscale problems
    • Quantized tensor trains
    • Scale resolution
    • Tensor decompositions

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