Preconcentration of organic solutes in urine by bubble bursting

Konstantin Chingin, Yunfeng Cai, Vitaliy Chagovets, Alexey Kononikhin, Natalia Starodubtseva, Vladimir Frankevich, Huanwen Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The chemical sensitivity of urine metabolomics analysis is greatly compromised due to the large amounts of inorganic salts in urine (NaCl, KCl), which are detrimental to analytical instrumentation, e.g. chromatographic columns or mass spectrometers. Traditional desalting approaches applied to urine pretreatment suffer from the chemical losses, which reduce the information depth of analysis. Objectives: We aimed to test a simple approach for the simultaneous preconcentration and desalting of organic solutes in urine based on the collection of induced bursting bubble aerosols above the surface of urine samples. Method: Bursting bubbles were generated at ambient conditions by feeding gas through an air diffuser at the bottom of diluted (200 times in ultrapure water) urine solution (50–500 mL). Collected aerosols were analyzed by the direct-infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI–MS). Results: The simultaneous preconcentration (ca. 6–12 fold) and desalting (ca. six–tenfold) of organic solutes in urine was achieved by the bursting bubble sample pretreatment, which allowed ca. three-times higher number of identified urine metabolites by high-resolution MS analysis. No chemical losses due to bubbling were observed. The increased degree of MS data clustering was demonstrated on the principal component analysis of data sets from the urine of healthy people and from the urine people with renal insufficiency. At least ten times higher sensitivity of trace drug detection in urine was demonstrated for clenbuterol and salbutamol. Conclusion: Our results indicate the high versatility of bubble bursting as a simple pretreatment approach to enhance the chemical depth and sensitivity of urine analysis. The approach could be attractive for personalized medicine as well as for the diagnostics of renal disorders of different etiology (diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal failure, transplant-associated complications, oncological disorders). Graphical Abstract: Urine desalting and preconcentration in bursting bubbles.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number171
JournalMetabolomics
Volume12
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bursting bubbles
  • Desalting
  • Metabolomics
  • Preconcentration
  • Sparging
  • Urine

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