We report on a photo-assisted adsorption of gold nanoparticles on a silicon substrate studied using atomic-force microscopy and secondary ion mass-spectrometry. Depending on a silicon conductivity type (n-Si or p-Si), the amount of photo-assisted adsorbed gold nanoparticles either increases (n-Si) or decreases (p-Si) on irradiation. In addition, the impacts of a cationic polyelectrolyte monolayer and adsorption time were also revealed. The polyelectrolyte layer enhances the adsorption of the gold nanoparticles but decreases the influence of light. The results of the photo-assisted adsorption on two types of silicon wafer were explained by electron processes at the substrate/solution interface.