The paper is dedicated to mathematical modeling of self-organization of bubbly liquids in acoustic fields. A continuum model describing the two-way interaction of diluted polydisperse bubbly liquids and acoustic fields in weakly-nonlinear approximation is studied analytically and numerically in the one-dimensional case. It is shown that the regimes of self-organization of monodisperse bubbly liquids can be controlled by only a few dimensionless parameters. Two basic modes, clustering and propagating shock waves of void fraction (acoustically induced transparency), are identified and criteria for their realization in the space of parameters are proposed. A numerical method for solving of one-dimensional self-organization problems is developed. Computational results for mono- and polydisperse systems are discussed.