Magnetic tissue engineering is one of the rapidly emerging and promising directions of tissue engineering and biofabrication where the magnetic field is employed as temporal removal support or scaffold. Iron oxide nanoparticles are used to label living cells and provide the desired magnetic properties. Recently, polymer microcapsules loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles have been proposed as a novel approach to designing magnetic materials with high local concentrations. These microcapsules can be readily internalized and retained intracellularly for a long time in various types of cells. The low cytotoxicity of these microcapsules was previously shown in 2D cell culture. This paper has demonstrated that cells containing these nontoxic nanomaterials can form viable 3D tissue spheroids for the first time. The spheroids retained labeled fluorescent microcapsules with magnetic nanoparticles without a detectable cytotoxic effect. The high concentration of packed nanoparticles inside the microcapsules enables the evident magnetic properties of the labeled spheroids to be maintained. Finally, magnetic spheroids can be effectively used for magnetic patterning and biofabrication of tissue-engineering constructs.
- iron oxide nanoparticles
- magnetic patterning
- magnetic tissue engineering
- magnetite containing polymer microcapsules
- tissue spheroids