Li distribution in graphite anodes: A Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy approach

Sergey Yu Luchkin, Hugues Yanis Amanieu, Daniele Rosato, Andrei L. Kholkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Advanced Li-ion batteries with high energy and power densities are urgently required in many applications including automobiles. Aging of these batteries and irreversible capacity loss are still the factors preventing their further use, and novel methods of their study are prerequisite for the understanding of degradation at nanoscale. In this work, we use Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) to assess the distribution of surface potential in graphite anodes of commercial Li-batteries before and after aging at high C rates. In the aged sample, we observed an apparent core-shell-type potential distribution on large crack-free particles. We attribute this core-shell potential distribution to the remnant Li+ ions stacked in graphite particles causing irreversible capacity loss. The results corroborate the "radial" model used to explain the specific capacity fading mechanism at high C rate cycling in commercial batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)887-894
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Publication statusPublished - 5 Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Anode
  • C rate
  • Graphite
  • KPFM
  • Li battery


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