New class of microobjects synthesized by Layer-by-Layer assembly method has been observed. These are polyelectrolyte nanocomposite microcapsules. The influence of microenvironment parameters (pH and ionic force of a solution, structure of solvent and temperature) on the physical and chemical properties of polyelectrolyte capsules has been described. The basic approaches to capsulation of organic substances, based on the change of microcapsule environment properties, the approaches to modification of microcapsule shells to give them sensitivity to external influences have been observed and analyzed. Usually the inorganic nanoparticles are used for such modification of microcontainers. During our work the basic methods of nanocomposite capsules fabrication were described and the ways of microcapsule shell permeability control by external influences, such as electromagnetic irradiation and ultrasound were considered.