## Abstract

Arnold defined J-invariants of general plane curves as functions on classes of such curves that jump in a prescribed way when passing through curves with self-tangency. The coalgebra of framed chord diagrams introduced here has been invented for the description of finite-order J-invariants; it generalizes the Hopf algebra of ordinary chord diagrams, which is used in the description of finite-order knot invariants. The framing of a chord in a diagram is determined by the type of self-tangency: direct self-tangency is labeled by 0, and inverse self-tangency is labeled by 1. The coalgebra of framed chord diagrams unifies the classes of J ^{+}-and J ^{-}-invariants, so far considered separately. The intersection graph of a framed chord diagram determines a homomorphism of this coalgebra into the Hopf algebra of framed graphs, which we also introduce. The combinatorial elements of the above description admit a natural complexification, which gives hints concerning the conjectural complexification of Vassiliev invariants.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1-10 |

Number of pages | 10 |

Journal | Functional Analysis and its Applications |

Volume | 40 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jan 2006 |

## Keywords

- Chord diagram
- Framed chord diagram
- Framed graph
- Hopf algebra of graphs
- Invariant of finite order
- J-invariant
- Plane curve