Ion Implantation in Silicon for Trimming the Operating Wavelength of Ring Resonators

Milan M. Milosevic, Xia Chen, Wei Cao, Antoine F.J. Runge, Yohann Franz, Callum G. Littlejohns, Sakellaris Mailis, Anna C. Peacock, David J. Thomson, Graham T. Reed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, we have presented results on the development of erasable gratings in silicon to facilitate wafer scale testing of photonics circuits via ion implantation of germanium. Similar technology can be employed to control the operating wavelength of ring resonators, which is very sensitive to fabrication imperfections. Ion implantation into silicon causes radiation damage resulting in a refractive index increase, and can therefore, form the basis of multiple optical devices. In this paper, we discuss design, modeling, and fabrication of ring resonators and their subsequent trimming using ion implantation of germanium into silicon, followed by either rapid thermal annealing or localized laser annealing. The results confirm the ability to permanently tune the position of the resonant wavelength to any point inside the free spectral range of the ring resonator, thus, greatly reducing the amount of power required for active tuning of these devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2799660
JournalIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Ion implantation
  • laser annealing
  • optical interconnects
  • rapid thermal annealing
  • ring resonators
  • silicon photonics
  • trimming


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