Objectives: Yttria Partially Stabilised Zirconia (YPSZ) is a high strength ceramic which has become widely used in porcelain veneered dental copings due to its exceptional toughness. Within these components the residual stress and crystallographic phase of YPSZ close to the interface are highly influential in the primary failure mode; near interface porcelain chipping. In order to improve present understanding of this behaviour, characterisation of these parameters is needed at an improved spatial resolution. Methods: In this study transmission micro-focus X-ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and focused ion beam milling residual stress analysis techniques have, for the first time, been used to quantify and cross-validate the microscale spatial variation of phase and residual stress of YPSZ in a prosthesis cross-section. Results: The results of all techniques were found to be comparable and complementary. Monoclinic YPSZ was observed within the first 10 μm of the YPSZ-porcelain interface with a maximum volume fraction of 60%. Tensile stresses were observed within the first 150 μm of the interface with a maximum value of ≈300 MPa at 50 μm from the interface. The remainder of the coping was in mild compression at ≈ − 30 MPa, with shear stresses of a similar magnitude also being induced by the YPSZ phase transformation. Significance: The analysis indicates that the interaction between phase transformation, residual stress and porcelain creep at YPSZ-porcelain interface results in a localised porcelain fracture toughness reduction. This explains the increased propensity of failure at this location, and can be used as a basis for improving prosthesis design.
- Micro-focus X-ray diffraction
- Phase mapping
- Raman spectroscopy
- Residual stress analysis
- Yttria partially stabilised zirconia- porcelain dental prostheses