Improving frequency regulation of wind-integrated multi-area systems using LFA-fuzzy PID control

Mostafa Kheshti, Lei Ding, Hossein Askarian-Abyaneh, Arvind R. Singh, Saeed Zare, Vladimir Terzija

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Due to the complexity and importance of the electricity grid stability, sophisticated control systems and computational approaches are essentially required to solve dynamical system frequency problems in multi-area systems. Participation of wind turbines in power system frequency control in the form of stepwise inertial control in the presence of a proposed adequately tuned fuzzy-PID load-frequency control is investigated in this paper. A two-area power system is studied in which it is linked through tie-line and equipped with fuzzy-PID control systems. To increase the energy transition and flexibility of the entire system against frequency events and parameters uncertainties, the fuzzy-PID controllers are first tuned using lightning flash algorithm (LFA). The tuned controllers are then used in each area to optimally counterbalance the frequency deviations and the tie-line power of the interconnected areas against varying load disturbances, wind power fluctuations, and to keep the renewable integrated system in a stable state. The sensitivity analysis is also conducted with a wide range of system parameter variations, uncertainties, and disturbances. Furthermore, the LFA-tuned fuzzy-PID load-frequency control is also tested in a two-area isolated microgrid, comprising wind turbine, PV panels, fuel cells, micro-turbine, and diesel engine generator. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared with other state-of-the-arts algorithms and control systems in the literature. The compared results show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed optimization-based controller for better frequency control in multi-area power systems and isolated microgrids. The results also demonstrate that a finely tuned automatic generation controller gives a significant boost to grid frequency control when wind turbines participate in the inertial control, suggesting migration from conventional PID-based automatic generation control to more adaptive control approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12802
JournalInternational Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • fuzzy-PID
  • lightning flash algorithm
  • load-frequency control
  • optimization
  • two-area system


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