The concept of liquid biopsy has emerged as a novel approach for cancer screening, which is based on the analysis of circulating cancer biomarkers in body fluids. Among the various circulating cancer biomarkers, including Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), exosomes have attracted tremendous attention due to their ability to diagnose cancer in its early stages with high efficiency. Recently, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been applied for the detection of cancer exosomes due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability. In this article, we review recent progress in the development of SERS-based technologies for in vitro identification of circulating cancer exosomes. The accent is made on the detection strategies and interpretation of the SERS data. The problems of detecting cancer-derived exosomes from patient samples and future perspectives of SERS-based diagnostics are also discussed.
- Early cancer diagnosis
- Liquid biopsy
- Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)