Germanium implanted photonic devices for post-fabrication trimming and programmable circuits

Xia Chen, Milan M. Milosevic, Xingshi Yu, Bigeng Chen, Antoine F.J. Runge, Ali Z. Khokhar, Sakellaris Mailis, David J. Thomson, Anna C. Peacock, Shinichi Saito, Otto L. Muskens, Graham T. Reed

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We reviewed our recent developments on the post-fabrication trimming techniques and programmable photonic circuits based on germanium ion implanted silicon waveguides. Annealing of ion implanted silicon can efficiently change the refractive index. This technology has been employed to fine-tune the optical phase, and therefore the operating point of photonic devices, enabling permanent correction of optical phase error induced by fabrication variations. High accuracy phase trimming was achieved with laser annealing and a real-time feedback control system. Erasable waveguides and directional couplers were also demonstrated, which can be used to implement programmable photonic circuits with low power consumption.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNanophotonics and Micro/Nano Optics IV
EditorsZhiping Zhou, Kazumi Wada
ISBN (Electronic)9781510622449
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes
EventNanophotonics and Micro/Nano Optics IV 2018 - Beijing, China
Duration: 12 Oct 201813 Oct 2018

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceNanophotonics and Micro/Nano Optics IV 2018


  • Integrated Photonics
  • ion implantation
  • laser annealing
  • Mach-Zehnder interferometer
  • programmable
  • ring resonators
  • silicon photonics
  • trimming


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