Genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for intracellular hydrogen peroxide

Vsevolod V. Belousov, Arkady F. Fradkov, Konstantin A. Lukyanov, Dmitry B. Staroverov, Konstantin S. Shakhbazov, Alexey V. Terskikh, Sergey Lukyanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

946 Citations (Scopus)


We developed a genetically encoded, highly specific fluorescent probe for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside living cells. This probe, named HyPer, consists of circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein (cpYFP) inserted into the regulatory domain of the prokaryotic H2O2-sensing protein, OxyR. Using HyPer we monitored H2O2 production at the single-cell level in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of HeLa cells treated with Apo2L/TRAIL. We found that an increase in H2 O2 occurs in the cytoplasm in parallel with a drop in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ) and a change in cell shape. We also observed local bursts in mitochondrial H2 O2 production during ΔΨ oscillations in apoptotic HeLa cells. Moreover, sensitivity of the probe was sufficient to observe H2O2 increase upon physiological stimulation. Using HyPer we detected temporal increase in H2O2 in the cytoplasm of PC-12 cells stimulated with nerve growth factor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-286
Number of pages6
JournalNature Methods
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes


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