Gas phase synthesis of non-bundled, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes with near-armchair chiralities

K. Mustonen, P. Laiho, A. Kaskela, Z. Zhu, O. Reynaud, N. Houbenov, Y. Tian, T. Susi, H. Jiang, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen

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    49 Citations (Scopus)


    We present a floating catalyst synthesis route for individual, i.e., non-bundled, small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a narrow chiral angle distribution peaking at high chiralities near the armchair species. An ex situ spark discharge generator was used to form iron particles with geometric number mean diameters of 3-4 nm and fed into a laminar flow chemical vapour deposition reactor for the continuous synthesis of long and high-quality SWCNTs from ambient pressure carbon monoxide. The intensity ratio of G/D peaks in Raman spectra up to 48 and mean tube lengths up to 4 μm were observed. The chiral distributions, as directly determined by electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope, clustered around the (n,m) indices (7,6), (8,6), (8,7), and (9,6), with up to 70% of tubes having chiral angles over 20°. The mean diameter of SWCNTs was reduced from 1.10 to 1.04 nm by decreasing the growth temperature from 880 to 750°C, which simultaneously increased the fraction of semiconducting tubes from 67% to 80%. Limiting the nanotube gas phase number concentration to ∼105cm-3 prevented nanotube bundle formation that is due to collisions induced by Brownian diffusion. Up to 80% of 500 as-deposited tubes observed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy were individual. Transparent conducting films deposited from these SWCNTs exhibited record low sheet resistances of 63 Ω/□ at 90% transparency for 550 nm light.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number013106
    JournalApplied Physics Letters
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2015


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