Flexibility quantification of thermostatically controlled loads for demand response applications

María Victoria Gasca, Federico Ibáñez, David Pozo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The need for flexible networks is an emerging challenge for power system operators (SO). The use of additional support, such as demand response (DR), must be quantified in order to offer a reliable service, given that this information is vital for demand aggregators. Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) are one of the most promising options among DR solutions; due to TCLs’ thermal characteristics their power may be increased or reduced accounting as ancillary services. However, TCLs tend to synchronize their behavior, which may affect their capacity to provide flexibility. This paper proposes a method for quantifying TCLs’ power flexibility, taking into account different scenarios, types of controllers and loads. Two control methods are compared, and a modified control algorithm is applied to the controllers under analysis to avoid TCL synchronization. The analysis was validated by simultaneously using real demand data from the UK National Grid and temperature data for the same region and time frame.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107592
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Aggregated thermostatically controlled loads
  • Demand response (DR)
  • Droop control
  • Flexibility
  • ON/OFF control
  • Synchronization
  • Thermal model


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