Carbon nanodots (CNDs) doped with Tb ions were synthesized using different synthetic routes: hydrothermal treatment of a solution containing carbon source (sodium dextran sulfate) and TbCl3; mixing of CNDs and TbCl3 solutions; freezing-induced loading of Tb and carbon-containing source into pores of CaCO3 microparticles followed by hydrothermal treatment. Binding of Tb ions to CNDs (Tb-CND coupling) was confirmed using size-exclusion chromatography and manifested itself through a decrease of the Tb photoluminescence lifetime signal. The shortest Tb photoluminescence lifetime was observed for samples obtained by hydrothermal synthesis of CaCO3 microparticles where Tb and carbon source were loaded into pores via the freezing-induced process. The same system displays an increase of Tb photoluminescence via energy transfer with excitation at 320–340 nm. Based on the obtained results, freezing-induced loading of cations into CNDs using porous CaCO3 microparticles as reactors is proposed to be a versatile route for the introduction of active components into CNDs. The obtained CNDs with long-lived emission may be used for time-resolved imaging and visualization in living biological samples where time-resolved and long-lived luminescence microscopy is required.