Empirical Implementation of the Steinmetz Equation to Compute Eddy Current Loss in Soft Magnetic Composite Components

Mehmet C. Kulan, Nick J. Baker, Konstantinos A. Liogas, Oliver Davis, John Taylor, Alexander M. Korsunsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Finite element analysis of magnetic materials allows accurate prediction of losses and is crucial in the design of electromagnetic devices and products. Soft magnetic composites are an alternative to silicon steel laminations, yet the electromagnetic material properties are less well documented and include uncertainties which can lead to inaccurate iron and Joule loss computations. The microstructure of soft magnetic composites, which is based on ferromagnetic particles coated by inorganic resistive insulation, makes the process of iron loss prediction unique. Composite core materials require further attention by design engineers in terms of the effect of component size and pressing processes on core loss predictions, which for laminations uses the well-known Steinmetz law. This study accesses the existing soft magnetic composite core loss modelling trends using experimentally measured results. The challenges of estimating and using Steinmetz core loss coefficients via curve fitting approaches are discussed. The study indicates that soft magnetic composite components need to be treated differently to laminated iron cores. Modelling the composite materials in finite element software requires experimentally informed loss models to be able to accurately compute power losses under varying magnetic flux density and electrical frequency. An approach is suggested which can predict iron losses to within 7%, but is only validated for component cross sectional areas of 144 mm2 or less.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14610-14623
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Core losses
  • Eddy currents
  • Electrical machines
  • Iron loss
  • Magnetic materials
  • Magnetic testing
  • Soft magnetic composite (SMC)
  • Steinmetz equation


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