Genomic selection is routinely used worldwide in agricultural breeding. However, in Russia, it is still not used to its full potential partially due to high genotyping costs. The use of genotypes imputed from the low-density chips (LD-chip) provides a valuable opportunity for reducing the genotyping costs. Pork production in Russia is based on the conventional 3-tier pyramid involving 3 breeds; therefore, the best option would be the development of a single LD-chip that could be used for all of them. Here, we for the first time have analyzed genomic variability in 3 breeds of Russian pigs, namely, Landrace, Duroc, and Large White and generated the LD-chip that can be used in pig breeding with the negligible loss in genotyping quality. We have demonstrated that out of the 3 methods commonly used for LD-chip construction, the block method shows the best results. The imputation quality depends strongly on the presence of close ancestors in the reference population. We have demonstrated that for the animals with both parents genotyped using high-density panels high-quality genotypes (allelic discordance rate < 0.05) could be obtained using a 300 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip, while in the absence of genotyped ancestors at least 2,000 SNP markers are required. We have shown that imputation quality varies between chromosomes, and it is lower near the chromosome ends and drops with the increase in minor allele frequency. Imputation quality of the individual SNPs correlated well across breeds. Using the same LD-chip, we were able to obtain comparable imputation quality in all 3 breeds, so it may be suggested that a single chip could be used for all of them. Our findings also suggest that the presence of markers with extremely low imputation quality is likely to be explained by wrong mapping of the markers to the chromosomal positions.
- Genomic selection
- Low-density chip
- Single nucleotide polymorphism