This paper presents the design and validation of a Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) system for Fast Frequency Response (FFR) to address the challenges associated with reduced and non-uniformly distributed inertia in power systems. The WAMC system, designed for the power system in Great Britain, is termed 'Enhanced Frequency Control Capability (EFCC).' It uses real time measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to monitor the system state in order to rapidly detect frequency disturbances and evaluate the magnitude of power imbalances. The impact of the disturbances on different parts of the network is considered to subsequently allocate the required response for different regions of the network, all within less than one second from the initiating event. The capabilities and characteristics of different resources (e.g., wind, energy storage, demand, etc.) are also evaluated and taken into account to achieve a suitable, optimized and coordinated response. Case studies using highly realistic hardware-in-the-loop setups are presented and these demonstrate that the proposed system is capable of detecting frequency events and deploying appropriate and coordinated responses in a timely fashion even with degraded communication conditions, thereby effectively enhancing the frequency control in future low-inertia systems and permitting higher penetrations of low-carbon and low-inertia energy sources.
- Frequency control
- low inertia
- wide-area monitoring and control