Computer generated holographic diffractive structures fabricated by direct excimer laser microetching

L. Boutsikaris, S. Mailis, N. Madamopoulos, S. Pissadakis, A. Petrakis, N. A. Vainos, P. Dainty, P. Parmiter, T. J. Hall

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Excimer laser microetching is applied on various substrate materials, including metals, metal alloys, semiconductors, and polymers, of arbitrary geometrical shape for fabricating surface-relief optical microstructures with very fine features (micron width/micron depth, or less). Particularly good results have been obtained with hardened photoresist, lithium niobate crystals, and stainless steel. The method is based on selective laser ablative etching achieved by projecting a mask, on a reduction basis, onto the substrate material. In addition to simple rectangular metal masks, computer generated holographic mask patterns were used. These hologram masters were optically plotted on photoresist, and then wet etched to produce chrome-on-quartz masks. A consecutive step-and-repeat method was used to replicate the mask on the substrate. Several types of surface relief holograms were directly etched on various materials. One class of holograms upon reconstruction produces an 8x8 square optical interconnect array. Another type reproduces a specific design pattern consisting of characters and numbers. Full automation of the microetching process in conjunction with a raster scanning method allows the fabrication of arbitrary pixellated multi-level micro-patterns. The direct nature of the etching technique appears to be very attractive, since it eliminates the need for substrate material pre- or post-processing and can be applied to almost any solid material.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)448-455
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 1995
Externally publishedYes
EventLaser-Induced Thin Film Processing 1995 - San Jose, United States
Duration: 1 Feb 199528 Feb 1995


  • Ablative microetching
  • Computer generated holograms
  • Excimer laser
  • Microoptics
  • Optical interconnects


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