Computation of internal voltage distribution in transformer windings by utilizing a voltage distribution factor

Andreas Theocharis, Marjan Popov, Vladimir Terzija

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, a method for the application of the black-box transformer models to the lumped-parameter transformer winding models is presented. The methodology is based on applying terminal transformer voltages as input parameters that could be provided by using the powerful black box vector fitting. Then, internal voltage distribution is determined by applying a lumped-parameter model approximation. In particular, the paper is focused on the direct computation of the internal voltage distribution, by avoiding a complicated procedure of solving the lumped-parameter winding model. The method is based on the transformation matrix utilization of the voltage distribution factors. This transformation matrix reflects the voltage distribution at specific internal points along the winding with respect to the input terminal voltages. At this stage, the inputs for the lumped-parameters model are provided by measured voltages at transformer terminals and the transformation matrix is determined through geometrical data of the transformer. The implementation of the proposed method with the black-box modeling approach in existing simulation software tools like EMTP is under development. The method is verified by comparing measured with computed waveforms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-17
Number of pages7
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Internal voltage distribution
  • Lumped-parameters model
  • Modeling
  • Overvoltages
  • Transformer
  • Transients


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