Lipids are essential components of the brain. Here, we conducted a comprehensive mass spectrometry-based analysis of lipidome composition in the prefrontal cortex of 40 humans, 40 chimpanzees, and 40 rhesus monkeys over postnatal development and adulthood. Of the 11,772 quantified lipid peaks, 7,589 change significantly along the lifespan. More than 60% of these changes occur prior to adulthood, with less than a quarter associated with myelination progression. Evolutionarily, 36% of the age-dependent lipids exhibit concentration profiles distinct to one of the three species; 488 (18%) of them were unique to humans. In both humans and chimpanzees, the greatest extent of species-specific differences occurs in early development. Human-specific lipidome differences, however, persist over most of the lifespan and reach their peak from 20 to 35 years of age, when compared with chimpanzee-specific ones.