Regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent autoimmunity by limiting immune responses and inflammation in the secondary lymphoid organs and nonlymphoid tissues. While unique subsets of Treg cells have been described in some nonlymphoid tissues, their relationship to Treg cells in secondary lymphoid organs and circulation remains unclear. Furthermore, it is possible that Treg cells from similar tissue types share largely similar properties. We have identified a short-lived effector Treg cell subset that expresses the α2 integrin, CD49b, and exhibits a unique tissue distribution, being abundant in peripheral blood, vasculature, skin, and skin-draining lymph nodes, but uncommon in the intestines and in viscera-draining lymph nodes. CD49b+ Treg cells, which display superior functionality revealed by in vitro and in vivo assays, appear to develop after multiple rounds of cell division and TCR-dependent activation. Accordingly, single-cell RNA-seq analysis placed these cells at the apex of the Treg developmental trajectory. These results shed light on the identity and development of a functionally potent subset of mature effector Treg cells that recirculate through and survey peripheral tissues.