Approaches to the adequate homogenization of optical metamaterials are becoming more and more complex, primarily due to an increased understanding of the role of asymmetric electrical and magnetic responses, in addition to the nonlocal effects of the surrounding medium, even in the simplest case of plane-wave illumination. The current trend in developing such advanced homogenization descriptions often relies on utilizing bianisotropic models as a base on top of which novel optical characterization techniques can be built. In this paper, we first briefly review general principles for developing a bianisotropic homogenization approach. Second, we present several examples validating and illustrating our approach using single-period passive and active optical metamaterials. We also show that the substrate may have a significant effect on the bianisotropic characteristics of otherwise symmetric passive and active metamaterials.
- Bianisotropic media