Bi-level dispatch and control architecture for power system in China based on grid-friendly virtual power plant

Qingwen Xu, Yongji Cao, Hengxu Zhang, Wen Zhang, Vladimir Terzija

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Non-synchronous renewable energy sources (RESs) have strong volatility and low inertia, which brings about great challenges on the accommodation of RESs and the security and stability of power systems. This paper proposes a bi-level power system dispatch and control architecture based on the grid-friendly virtual power plant (GVPP), so as to accommodate RESs flexibly and securely. The typical dispatch and control system of the power system in China is presented, and the particular challenges stemming from non-synchronous RESs are analyzed. The functional requirements, concept, and fundamental design of the GVPP are provided, which is distinguished from traditional virtual power plants (VPPs) for its active participation in power system stability control. Based on the cloud platform, a bi-level dispatch and control architecture considering two objectives is established. First, in the inner level, the GVPP operates to promote the accommodation of RESs under normal condition. Then, from the perspective of out-level power systems, GVPPs serve as spinning reserves for power support under contingencies. Besides, the key problems to be solved in the development of the GVPP-based architecture are summarized. Although the architecture is proposed for the power system in China, it can be applied to any power systems with similar challenges.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1282
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021


  • Dispatch and control architecture
  • Grid-friendly virtual power plant
  • Power system security and stability
  • Renewable energy sources


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