This paper studies the need to include equalizing circuits in energy storage systems (ESSs), particularly in supercapacitor arrays. It evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of introducing these circuits in the system, and it presents a probabilistic study in order to show how much more energy can be stored by using an equalizing system. In addition, it evaluates several equalizing systems and presents a fast charging circuit that allows ESSs to charge at the same power as in the discharge process. The objective of the paper is to provide a guide for properly selecting an equalizing system when one is needed, for example, in electric vehicle or microgrid applications.
- Balancing circuit
- supercapacitor (SC)