Amperometric detection of l-lactate using nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes modified with lactate oxidase

Jacob M. Goran, Jennifer L. Lyon, Keith J. Stevenson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) provide a simple, robust, and unique platform for biosensing. Their catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and subsequent hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) disproportionation creates a sensitive electrochemical response to enzymatically generated H 2O 2 on the N-CNT surface, eliminating the need for additional peroxidases or electron-transfer mediators. Glassy carbon electrodes were modified with 7.4 atom % N-CNTs, lactate oxidase (LOx), and a tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr)-modified Nafion binder. The resulting amperometric l-lactate biosensors displayed a sensitivity of 0.040 ± 0.002 A M -1 cm -2, a low operating potential of-0.23 V (vs Hg/Hg 2SO 4), a repeatability of 1.6% relative standard deviation (RSD) for 200 μM samples of lactate, a fabrication reproducibility of 5.0% (RSD), a limit of detection of 4.1 ± 1.6 μM, and a linear range of 14-325 μM. Additionally, over a 90 day period, the repeatability for 200 μM samples of lactate remained below 3.4% (RSD). Direct electron transfer was observed between the LOx redox-active center and the N-CNTs with the electroactive surface coverage determined to be 0.27 nmol cm -2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8123-8129
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes


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