Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse

Maxim Gavrilenko, Alexey Ozerov, Philip R. Kyle, Michael J. Carr, Alex Nikulin, Christopher Vidito, Leonid Danyushevsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A series of large caldera-forming eruptions (361–38 ka) transformed Gorely volcano, southern Kamchatka Peninsula, from a shield-type system dominated by fractional crystallization processes to a composite volcanic center, exhibiting geochemical evidence of magma mixing. Old Gorely, an early shield volcano (700–361 ka), was followed by Young Gorely eruptions. Calc-alkaline high magnesium basalt to rhyolite lavas have been erupted from Gorely volcano since the Pleistocene. Fractional crystallization dominated evolution of the Old Gorely magmas, whereas magma mixing is more prominent in the Young Gorely eruptive products. The role of recharge-evacuation processes in Gorely magma evolution is negligible (a closed magmatic system); however, crustal rock assimilation plays a significant role for the evolved magmas. Most Gorely magmas differentiate in a shallow magmatic system at pressures up to 300 MPa, ∼3 wt% H2O, and oxygen fugacity of ∼QFM + 1.5 log units. Magma temperatures of 1123–1218 °C were measured using aluminum distribution between olivine and spinel in Old and Young Gorely basalts. The crystallization sequence of major minerals for Old Gorely was as follows: olivine and spinel (Ol + Sp) for mafic compositions (more than 5 wt% of MgO); clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at ∼5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag) and magnetite at ∼3.5 wt% of MgO (Ol + Cpx + Plag + Mt). We show that the shallow magma chamber evolution of Old Gorely occurs under conditions of decompression and degassing. We find that the caldera-forming eruption(s) modified the magma plumbing geometry. This led to a change in the dominant magma evolution process from fractional crystallization to magma mixing. We further suggest that disruption of the magma chamber and accompanying change in differentiation process have the potential to transform a shield volcanic system to that of composite cone on a global scale.

Original languageEnglish
Article number47
JournalBulletin of Volcanology
Volume78
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Caldera
  • Fractional crystallization
  • Gorely volcano
  • Kamchatka
  • Magma mixing
  • Magma plumbing system reorganization
  • Volcano morphology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Abrupt transition from fractional crystallization to magma mixing at Gorely volcano (Kamchatka) after caldera collapse'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this