A variational upper bound on the ground state energy E gs of a quantum system, E gs Ψ|H|Ψ, is well-known (here H is the Hamiltonian of the system and Ψ is an arbitrary wave function). Much less known are variational lower bounds on the ground state. We consider one such bound which is valid for a many-body translation-invariant lattice system. Such a lattice can be divided into clusters which are identical up to translations. The Hamiltonian of such a system can be written as , where a term Hi is supported on the i'th cluster. The bound reads , where is some wisely chosen set of reduced density matrices of a single cluster. The implementation of this latter variational principle can be hampered by the difficulty of parameterizing the set , which is a necessary prerequisite for a variational procedure. The root cause of this difficulty is the nonlinear positivity constraint ρ > 0 which is to be satisfied by a density matrix. The squaring parametrization of the density matrix, ρ = τ 2/trτ 2, where τ is an arbitrary (not necessarily positive) Hermitian operator, accounts for positivity automatically. We discuss how the squaring parametrization can be utilized to find variational lower bounds on ground states of translation-invariant many-body systems. As an example, we consider a one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
|Journal||Journal of Physics: Conference Series|
|Publication status||Published - 26 Mar 2019|
|Event||3rd International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and Beyond, CSP 2018 - Moscow, Russian Federation|
Duration: 24 Sep 2018 → 27 Sep 2018