A specialized review on outlook of future Cyber-Physical Power System (CPPS) testbeds for securing electric power grid

Rajaa Vikhram Yohanandhan, Rajvikram Madurai Elavarasan, Rishi Pugazhendhi, Manoharan Premkumar, Lucian Mihet-Popa, Junbo Zhao, Vladimir Terzija

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The Cyber-Physical Power System (CPPS) is a new type of system in which the traditional energy system is integrated into the information network with control systems, communication networks, and computational units. CPPS is the foundation of a long-term transformation of energy management that will fundamentally alter the perspective and application pattern of traditional energy research. The strong interactions between systems in a CPPS introduce new challenges in maintaining high supply security, as new factors can affect the overall security of the power system. Such factors include cybersecurity, the behaviour and constraints of neighbouring energy systems, and the dynamics of interactions between the various systems. Integrating computing, communications, and control at all levels of electrical energy generation, transmission, distribution, utilisation, and storage in CPPS increases vulnerabilities and complicates security. Security studies must reflect the characteristics of the CPPS infrastructure in actual testing environments that support the interfacing of real-world hardware devices. CPPS testbeds are effective in this context because they provide testing capabilities for evaluating the synergistic relationship between physical and virtual components in controlled environments. Security-oriented CPPS testbeds are invaluable for performing cybersecurity and cyberattack analyses, identifying system threats and vulnerabilities in various layers of CPPS, implementing intrusion detection and prevention algorithms, and evaluating the efficacy of mitigation techniques without imposing excessive economic burdens or posing safety risks. This paper provides a comprehensive review of CPPS testbeds from the standpoint of the physical power system layer, cyber system layer, and cyber-physical fusion layer. Following a brief description of the importance of testbeds for cybersecurity research in CPPS, and a brief classification of existing CPPS testbeds for cyberattacks, and cybersecurity analysis in CPPS is presented. A detailed overview of the outlook for future CPPS testbeds in terms of communication, control, computing, and educational perspective is provided. Finally, the work is concluded with future research directions for developing a secure electric power grid.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107720
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Critical infrastructure protection
  • Cyber attack
  • Cyber security
  • Cyber-Physical Power System testbed
  • Real-time testbed
  • Smart grid


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