α-VPO 4: A Novel Many Monovalent Ion Intercalation Anode Material for Metal-Ion Batteries

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Abstract

In this paper, we report on a novel α-VPO 4 phosphate adopting the α-CrPO 4 type structure as a promising anode material for rechargeable metal-ion batteries. Obtained by heat treatment of a structurally related hydrothermally prepared KTiOPO 4 -type NH 4 VOPO 4 precursor under reducing conditions, the α-VPO 4 material appears stable in a wide temperature range and possesses an interesting "sponged" needle-like particle morphology. The electrochemical performance of α-VPO 4 as the anode material was examined in Li-, Na-, and K-based cells. The carbon-coated α-VPO 4 /C composite exhibits 185, 110, and 37 mA h/g specific capacities respectively at the first discharge and around 120, 80, and 30 mA h/g at consecutive cycles at a C/10 rate. The considerable capacity drop after the first cycle in Li and Na cells is presumably due to irreversible alkali ion consumption taking place upon alkali-ion de/insertion. The EDX analysis of the recovered electrodes revealed an uptake of ∼23% of Na after the first discharge with significant cell parameter alteration validated by operando XRD measurements. In contrast to the known β-VPO 4 anode materials, both Li and Na de/insertion into the new α-VPO 4 proceed via an intercalation mechanism with the parent structural framework preserved but not via a conversion mechanism. The dimensionality of alkali-ion migration pathways and diffusion energy barriers was analyzed by the BVEL approach. Na-ion diffusion coefficients measured by the potentiostatic intermittent titration technique are in the range of (0.3-1.0)·10 -10 cm 2 /s, anticipating α-VPO 4 as a prospective high-power anode material for Na-ion batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12431-12440
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume11
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019

Keywords

  • alkali metal ion diffusion
  • anode material
  • intercalation
  • operando diffraction
  • phosphates
  • rechargeable batteries
  • α-CrPO structure

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